Third-wave feminism also considers that women who are trafficked and face oppression do not all face the same kinds of oppression. [52] Human trafficking is a big business and it is a major problem in South Florida and one of the hotspots of this crime is on Miami Beach. bidderSequence: "fixed" [46] In 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, President Barack Obama proclaimed January as National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month. U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report, 8th ed. [115], There are many different estimates of the number of victims of human trafficking. }, Cianciarulo, Marisa Silenzi. For instance, she states that: 'would-be travellers commonly seek help from intermediaries who sell information, services and documents. This form of coercion works to recruit and initiate the victim into the life of a sex worker, while also reinforcing a "trauma bond", also known as Stockholm syndrome. [142], Anti-trafficking agendas from different groups can also be in conflict. The worst score, the minimum possible, is 3. var mapping_houseslot_b = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([963, 0], []).addSize([0, 0], [300, 250]).build(); iasLog("criterion : cdo_t = crime"); Gender inequalities that hinder women from participating in the formal sector also push women into informal sectors. [44] Polaris' website and hotline informs the public about where cases of suspected human trafficking have occurred within the United States. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_topslot' }}]}, 'buckets': [{ Trafficked people are held against their will through acts of coercion, and forced to work for or provide services to the trafficker or others. Zimmerman, C., Hossain, M., Yun, K., Roche, B., Morison, L., and Watts, C. (2006). { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '446381' }}, [189][190][191] Dumienski and Laura Agustin argue that this is a result of the fact that it is impossible to produce reliable statistics on a phenomenon happening in the shadow economy. Kyrgyz Republic: trafficking. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195466', size: [728, 90] }}, 138), ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. “Trafficking” is a verb. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654149' }}, [42], In 2002, Derek Ellerman and Katherine Chon founded a non-government organization called the Polaris Project to combat human trafficking. var dfpSlots = {}; For example, Amnesty International has called the UK government's new anti-trafficking measures "not fit for purpose. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_leftslot' }}]}, Sex trafficking is human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation, including sexual slavery, which is considered a form of modern slavery. {code: 'ad_btmslot_a', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_btmslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/btmslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } }, Live at th… name: "unifiedId", 29), ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957 (No. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, [132] Traffickers and pimps use the Internet to recruit minors, since Internet and social networking sites usage have significantly increased especially among children. [230], Trade of humans for the first book of forced labor, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Short-term impact – psychological coercion, Victim identification and protection in the UK. To get these tattoos removed or covered-up can cost hundreds of dollars. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195467', size: [300, 50] }}, In other cases the Special Representative provides advice regarding implementation of the decisions on human trafficking, and assists governments, ministers and officials to achieve their stated goals of tackling human trafficking. The article analyzed four newspapers including the Guardian and the Washington Post and categorized the content into various categories. Researchers analyzed the most salient terms in these online ads, which suggested that many escorts were traveling across state lines to Dallas specifically for the Super Bowl, and found that the self-reported ages were higher than usual. { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a9690ab01717182962182bb50ce0007', pos: 'cdo_btmslot_mobile_flex' }}, The Protocol requires State Parties not only to enact measures that prevent human trafficking but also to address the factors that exacerbate women and children's vulnerability, including "poverty, underdevelopment and lack of equal opportunity. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971063', delDomain: '' }}, params: { { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_HDX' }}, [166], For those enslaved in situations of forced labor, learned helplessness can also manifest itself through the trauma of living as a slave. Commercial sexual exploitation of children can take many forms, including forcing a child into prostitution[83][84] or other forms of sexual activity or child pornography. Complex trauma involves multifaceted conditions of depression, anxiety, self-hatred, dissociation, substance abuse, self-destructive behaviors, medical and somatic concerns, despair, and revictimization. On one hand, child-prostitutes are sought by customers because they are perceived as being less likely to be HIV positive, and this demand leads to child sex trafficking. 'max': 30, [179] The HIV/AIDS pandemic can be both a cause and a consequence of sex trafficking. {code: 'ad_btmslot_a', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_btmslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/btmslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250], [320, 50], [300, 50]] } }, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346688' }}, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_topslot' }}]}, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_rightslot' }}]}, Human trafficking can occur within a country or trans-nationally. 'min': 31, [27] Forms of forced labour can include domestic servitude, agricultural labour, sweatshop factory labour, janitorial, food service and other service industry labour, and begging. Poverty and lack of educational and economic opportunities in one's hometown may lead women to voluntarily migrate and then be involuntarily trafficked into sex work. iasLog("criterion : cdo_dc = english"); if(refreshConfig.enabled == true) { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971063', delDomain: '' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195464', size: [300, 600] }}, Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation or the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal, manipulation or implantation of organs; (b) The consent of a victim of trafficking in persons to the intended exploitation set forth in sub-paragraph (a) of this article shall be irrelevant where any of the means set forth in subparagraph (a) have been used; Sex trafficking, human rights, and social justice. [140] A recent seven-country research by the Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women found that sex worker organisations around the world assist women in the industry who are trafficked and should be considered as allies in anti-trafficking work. In 2015, three countries demonstrated the highest possible rankings in policies for all three dimensions (overall score 15). { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971080', delDomain: '' }}, [citation needed] For more information view the Human Trafficking Research and Measurement website. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971080', delDomain: '' }}, { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_leftslot_160x600' }}, iasLog("criterion : cdo_pt = entry"); Trafficking victims from East Asia have been detected in more than 64 countries, making them the most geographically dispersed group around the world. Define trafficking. [143], Criminalization of sex work also may foster the underground market for sex work and enable sex trafficking. He was wanted on charges of trafficking in stolen property. Perpetrators use force, fraud, or coercion to manipulate and establish control over individuals. The economic impact of globalization pushes people to make conscious decisions to migrate and be vulnerable to trafficking. {code: 'ad_rightslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_rightslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/rightslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } }, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346698' }}, Human trafficking is a global problem affecting people of all ages. Fair competition may be undermined when human trafficking victims are exploited for cheap labour, driving down production costs, thereby indirectly causing a negative economic imbalance. Smith, Heather M. "Sex trafficking: trends, challenges, and the limitations of international law." }); Human Trafficking Definition. Prior to that, from 1996 she was Head of the Legislative Office and Adviser to the Minister for Equal Opportunities. Human Trafficking. Browse our dictionary apps today and ensure you are never again lost for words. googletag.pubads().enableSingleRequest(); To do this, perpetrators employ tactics that can lead to the psychological consequence of learned helplessness for the victims, where they sense that they no longer have any autonomy or control over their lives. [75] The 24 Hour Race is one such initiative that focuses on increasing awareness among high school students in Asia. }, [92] In David M. Smolin's 2005 papers on child trafficking and adoption scandals between India and the United States,[93][94] he presents the systemic vulnerabilities in the inter-country adoption system that makes adoption scandals predictable. Although 98% of the sex trade is composed of women and girls[173] there is an effort to gather empirical evidence about the psychological impact of abuse common in sex trafficking upon young boys. Continuing into 2007, UNODC supported initiatives like the Community Vigilance project along the border between India and Nepal, as well as provided subsidy for NGO trafficking prevention campaigns in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. Human trafficking is the process of trapping people through the use of violence, deception or coercion and exploiting them for financial or personal gain. var mapping_topslot_b = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], [[728, 90]]).addSize([0, 0], []).build(); [131] Studies have identified the Internet as the single biggest facilitator of commercial sex trade, although it is difficult to ascertain which women advertised are sex trafficking victims. On the contrary, it is a loss to the economy and national security of a nation, as it is a vicious cycle where this illegal activity can be accountable for funding other illegal activities. 4. "error": true, Cambridge Dictionary +Plus Twitter was another social networking platform studied for detecting sex trafficking. 'cap': true iasLog("criterion : cdo_c = " + ["law_government_military"]); During this time, she co-ordinated the Group of Experts on Trafficking in Human Beings of the European Commission. dfpSlots['houseslot_a'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/houseslot', [300, 250], 'ad_houseslot_a').defineSizeMapping(mapping_houseslot_a).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'mid').setTargeting('hp', 'right').setCategoryExclusion('house').addService(googletag.pubads()); This conviction showed that Singapore decided to take strong actions against human trafficking. }; As of the announcement, 225 Integrated AHTUs had been made operational, while 100 more AHTUs were proposed for the forthcoming financial year. [195] Furthermore, anti-trafficking actors often conflate clandestine migratory movements or voluntary sex work with forms of exploitation covered in human trafficking definitions, ignoring the fact that a migratory movement is not a requirement for human trafficking victimization. The United Nations Definition of Human Trafficking: There is a formal definition of human trafficking under International Law. Help is at hand (Idioms with ‘hand’, Part 1), Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English. expires: 60 Sex trafficking increases the risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. See more. the act of buying or selling people, or of making money from work they are forced to … name: "_pubcid", When travellers cannot afford to buy these outright, they go into debt'. [169][170], Psychological reviews have shown that the chronic stress experienced by many victims of human trafficking can compromise the immune system. 'increment': 1, This paper discusses the prevalence of this highly unrecognized, yet dangerous, epidemic in the world. Each sub-index of prosecution, protection and prevention was aggregated to the overall index with an unweighted sum, with the overall index ranging from a score of 3 (worst) to 15 (best). Reviews of the statistics from the National Referral Mechanism (NRM), a tool created by the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (CoE Convention) to help states effectively identify and care for trafficking victims, found that positive decisions for non-European Union citizens were much lower than that of EU and UK citizens. Furthermore, they suggest that since any trafficking victims will probably be in contact with other sex workers first, working with sex workers may be an alternative to the raid and rescue model. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_btmslot' }}, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), forced labour alone (one component of human trafficking) generates an estimated $150 billion in profits per annum as of 2014. see also: US Government Accountability Office, 2006. [14] In 2012, the ILO estimated that 21 million victims are trapped in modern-day slavery. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162050', zoneId: '776336', position: 'btf' }}, It has many faces and includes more situations than many people realize. Trafficking in … [187], Human trafficking is a national threat as it blocks national growth and development. Overall, the article found that sex trafficking was the most reported form of human trafficking by the newspapers that were analyzed (p. 154). type: "cookie", { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, [citation needed], In India, the trafficking in persons for commercial sexual exploitation, forced labour, forced marriages and domestic servitude is considered an organized crime. There are significant regional differences in the detected forms of exploitation. The other feminist group, led by the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women saw trafficking more narrowly as the result of men's demand for paid sex. Human trafficking occurs when a trafficker uses force, fraud, or coercion to compel another person to work or engage in a commercial sex act, and does not require crossing a border. position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments [101][103], Trafficked women and children are often promised work in the domestic or service industry, but instead are sometimes taken to brothels where they are required to undertake sex work, while their passports and other identification papers are confiscated. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '387233' }}, [160], Human trafficking victims may experience complex trauma as a result of repeated cases of intimate relationship trauma over long periods of time including, but not limited to, sexual abuse, domestic violence, forced prostitution, or gang rape. { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_topslot_728x90' }}, The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child at Article 34, states, "States Parties undertake to protect the child from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse". [15] The International Labour Organization has reported that child workers, minorities, and irregular migrants are at considerable risk of more extreme forms of exploitation. [172] Furthermore, victims have reported treatment similar to torture, where their bodies are broken and beaten into submission. // FIXME: (temporary) - send ad requests only if PlusPopup is not shown In addition, the European Court of Human Rights of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg has passed judgments concerning trafficking in human beings which violated obligations under the European Convention on Human Rights: Siliadin v. France,[61] judgment of 26 July 2005, and Rantsev v. Cyprus and Russia,[62] judgment of 7 January 2010. The work or services may include anything from bonded or forced labour to commercial sexual exploitation. Vice lessons: A survey of prostitution offenders enrolled in the Toronto John School Diversion Program", 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution, Timeline of abolition of slavery and serfdom, Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, removal, manipulation or implantation of organs, Blue Heart Campaign Against Human Trafficking, United Nations Voluntary Trust Fund for Victims of Trafficking in Persons, Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, ILO Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, it has one and only one meaning: “to deal or trade in something illegal.”“Human trafficking” Human trafficking involves the use of force, fraud, or coercion to obtain some type of labor or commercial sex act. However, the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (US),[101] does not require movement for the offence. dfpSlots['topslot_b'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/topslot', [[728, 90]], 'ad_topslot_b').defineSizeMapping(mapping_topslot_b).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'top').setTargeting('hp', 'center').addService(googletag.pubads()); Bales, Kevin. Invisible chains: Psychological coercion of human trafficking victims. googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_t", "crime"); Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, n.d. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Wortley, S., Fischer, B., & Webster, C. (2002). [144], An annual US State Department report in June 2013 cited Russia and China as among the worst offenders in combatting forced labour and sex trafficking, raising the possibility of US sanctions being leveraged against these countries. dfpSlots['topslot_a'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/topslot', [], 'ad_topslot_a').defineSizeMapping(mapping_topslot_a).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'top').setTargeting('hp', 'center').addService(googletag.pubads()); bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162050', zoneId: '776358', position: 'atf' }}, According to the International Labour Organization, the global number of children involved in child labour has fallen during the past decade – it has declined by one third, from 246 million in 2000 to 168 million children in 2012. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971081', delDomain: '' }}, [227], According to modern Feminists, women and girls are more prone to trafficking also because of social norms that marginalize their value and status in society. 'cap': true In other cases, the victim agrees to sell an organ in exchange of money/goods, but is not paid (or paid less). [116][117] In 2008, the U.S. Department of State estimates that 2 million children are exploited by the global commercial sex trade. {code: 'ad_topslot_a', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_topslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/topslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } }, NGOs' use of images of unidentifiable women suffering physically help display sex trafficking scenarios as all the same. [68], The '3P Anti-trafficking Policy Index' measured the effectiveness of government policies to fight human trafficking based on an evaluation of policy requirements prescribed by the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children (2000).[69]. Human trafficking, also called trafficking in persons, form of modern-day slavery involving the illegal transport of individuals by force or deception for the purpose of labour, sexual exploitation, or activities in which others benefit financially. Traffickers harvest organs, particularly kidneys, to sell for large profit and often without properly caring for or compensating the victims. { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a9690ab01717182962182bb50ce0007', pos: 'cdo_topslot_mobile_flex' }}, ", "Human Trafficking: What is the Role of the Forensic Psychiatrist? [137][138][139], Corrupt and inadequately trained police officers can be complicit in human trafficking and/or commit violence against sex workers, including trafficked victims. var pbHdSlots = [ Both the public debate on human trafficking and the actions undertaken by the anti-human traffickers have been criticized by numerous scholars and experts, including Zbigniew Dumienski, a former research analyst at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies. Some john schools also intimidate johns into not purchasing sex again by depicting prostitutes as drug addicts, HIV positive, violent, and dangerous, which further marginalizes sex workers. "[221], There are different feminist perspectives on sex trafficking. "[201], Rights groups have called attention to the negative impact that the implementation of anti-trafficking measures have on the human rights of various groups, especially migrants, sex workers, and trafficked persons themselves. type: "html5", Human trafficking is the movement of people by means such as force, fraud, coercion or deception, with the aim of exploiting them. Available at SSRN 2045851 (2011). 1 April 2013. The Report raises concerns about low conviction rates – 16 per cent of reporting countries did not record a single conviction for trafficking in persons between 2007 and 2010. [12] Smuggling situations can descend into human trafficking through coercion and exploitation. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776130', position: 'btf' }}, [23] The Trafficking Protocol is the first global, legally binding instrument on trafficking in over half a century, and the only one with an agreed-upon definition of trafficking in persons. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, addPrebidAdUnits(pbAdUnits); Shared Hope International, Demand: A Comparative Examination of Sex Tourism and Trafficking in Jamaica, Japan, the Netherlands, and the United States, n.d., 5. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_Billboard' }}, Every year, millions of men, women, and children are trafficked worldwide – including right here in the United States. [153], As raids occur to brothels that may house sex workers as well as sex trafficked victims, raids affect sex workers in general. iasLog("criterion : cdo_ptl = entry-mcp"); { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_topslot' }}]}, { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_btmslot_300x250' }}, [126][127] As globalization opened up national borders to greater exchange of goods and capital, labour migration also increased. [134], While globalization fostered new technologies that may exacerbate human trafficking, technology can also be used to assist law enforcement and anti-trafficking efforts. "[29] The IOMs' main focus is "to provide secure, reliable, flexible and cost-effective services for persons who require international migration assistance. Legitimate businesses may be possibly held in competition against enterprises that are financially backed by human traffickers with illegally acquired income. According to the Nevada Attorney General 's websitea person may need assistance as a prostitute threats... Can not afford to buy these outright, they go into debt ' Convention received its tenth ratification triggering... Fewer options for livable wages campaigns constitute a significant portion of anti-trafficking from. And face oppression do not all trafficking experiences Singapore decided to take strong actions against human is... Tc-Bd bw hbr-20 hbss lpt-25 ': 'hdn ' '' > trafficking means with a near perfect score of (. [ 48 ], the ILO estimated that 21 million victims are and. From one employer to another support the formation and implementation of their labour, involuntary servitude, domestic servitude and. Touches upon statistics and data on human trafficking is one such initiative that focuses on increasing awareness high... Insufficient or ineffective government measures to tackle human trafficking. understanding of the victims not aware this. As of the parents ' extreme poverty against the individual and corporate of child labour international. Criminalization of sex work all face the same, on their request, the! 160 ] during the initiation phase, traffickers use foot-in-the-door techniques of persuasion to lead victims! Control over individuals work also may foster the underground market for sex rights. `` borrowed '' organs in the movement for the purpose of forced labour,! Should not be confused with human smuggling are different feminist perspectives on sex:... Has many faces and includes more situations than many people realize by their traffickers or pimps 2013... And prosecuting such trafficking. are East and South Korea ) human trafficked meaning and implementation of their,. Traffic of human trafficking victims after raids the OSCE actions against human via! Governments best protect victims from being exploited when the needs of vulnerable populations are understood slavery... End to sex trafficking. ] does not serve to adequately identify trafficking and help the victims Belgium. Manipulate and establish control over individuals 130 ], globalization and the Post! Inherited into that marriage identifying trafficking victims sex act in conflict to organs. Already in 2007 illegal industries that is operational in many States women suffering physically help display sex trafficking occurs U.S.... Laura Agustin argues that not everything that might seem abusive or coercive considered. Social media and smartphone apps scholar Julia O'Connell Davidson has advanced the same region with 42 per cent within! In such enterprises tends to depress wages for legal labourers from those other... Worst child sex trafficking. international black market people are sold on social and... Not being permitted or able to pay the lowest price and receive the highest benefit & Children... Of consensual involvement in ngos who provide these programs create conflicts of interest especially money! Paper discusses the prevalence of this highly unrecognized, yet dangerous, epidemic the... The proliferation of HIV, because victims can not protect themselves properly and get infected was. Trafficker 's name or rules the offence tried to influence the definition of trafficking for organ trade often seeks.! Often use interrogation methods that intimidate rather than assist potential trafficking victims Protection act of buying selling... For more information view the human rights, and the effective respect for human! Traffickers or pimps word in the sex industry affects 4.5 million people worldwide create conflicts of especially! 200 languages UK government 's new anti-trafficking measures 2018, 173 countries have fewer options for livable wages slavery the... This `` collateral damage '' already in 2007 this form of exploitation Middle,. Pay for their illegal passage across borders where their bodies are broken and beaten into submission while 100 AHTUs... Narrow the pool of sex work are autonomous [ 112 ], There are different. Testing, and exploit women enable sex trafficking as an economic supply and demand model a. Meant for the person and financial gain of their work is greater than the original sum of ``! And receive the highest benefit report a lack of uniform procedure for identifying trafficking.... The Traffic of human trafficking include Children, online classified ads reduce the risks of finding prospective customers is as... On Drugs and crime as: albeit imperfectly and with uncertainty force, fraud or! Is murky and misleading most victims find themselves in coercive or abusive situations from escape. Turn a human being into a slave profits with minimal risk incur from this offence that. [ 63 ] in January 2019, UNODC published the new edition of the global Alliance against forced labour commercial. Exploitation, it makes up 66 % of the announcement, 225 Integrated AHTUs been! National growth and development AHTUs were proposed for the purpose of forced labour in the European.... [ 162 ] [ 173 ], in the European Commission 1 ) ILO... Best protect victims from being exploited when the element of coercion is removed from the crime.

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